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DepEd Arrest the Frustration Readers Program

In consonance with the Millennium Development Goal 2: Achieve Universal Primary Education, Education For All (EFA) Goal On Improving the Quality of Education And Every Child A Reader Program (ECARP), this office is launching the “Arrest the Frustration Readers Program in Grades 1, 2 and 3 as a reading program initiative.

Concomitant to the Arrest the Frustration Readers Program (AFRP), it is suggested that all schools will follow the activities hereunder for effective and successful implementation of this reading program.

  • Implementation of Phil-IRI (Grades 2-6) and EGRA (Grade 1)
  • Establishment of mini-libraries in the classroom
  • DEAR- Drop Everything and Read (DepED Memo No 244, s. 2011)
  • Establishment of reading clinic


  1. Revised Philippine Informal Reading Inventory (Phil-IRI)
  2. Download 2018 Phil-IRI Manual


Approaches to Arrest Frustration Readers

  1. Mother-Tongue Based Reading Instruction using a combination of Marungko Approach and Four-Pronged Approach.
  2. Arrest the Frustration Readers Program adopts the “Pull-Out Scheme’’ structure that brings together Frustration Readers of Grades 1,2,3 at the Reading Clinic handled by an expert reading teacher for 1 hour everyday using the combination of Four-Pronged and Marungko Approaches in Reading.
  3. Utilizing the AFR Reading Kits that contained calibrated reading and phonics exercises expressed in the mother tongue of the learners.
  4. Progress monitoring and assessment is conducted regularly that determines the reading progress of the child.


  1. Orientation to Parents and Teachers on AFR Program.
  2. School Orientation and project Launching
  3. FR Parents meeting and advocacy to discuss the program
  4. Reading Teachers shall be trained in Beginning Reading and Development and Utilization of Mother Tongue-Based Reading Materials.
  5. Reading diagnosis using Phil-IRI and EGRA to identify the frustration readers who will be the clients of the AF’R program.
  6. Leveling of readers using Phil-IRI, EGRA
  7. Validation and Triangulation of information against available anecdotal record, and feedback from teachers regarding the FRs.
  8. Client shall be pulled out from their classes and be in the reading clinics for the reading intervention for at least 1 hour everyday.
  9. During the year in different pacing, the FR who is transformed into instructional or independent reader shall go back to the mainstream.
  10. School visit to model reading centers for benchmarking.
  11. Reading Teachers trained on individualized instruction and LCL.
  12. Home visit to FRs residences.
  13. Interview key informants in the family regarding the FR profile
  14. Advocacy and Organization of FR parents to generate support.
  15. Send letter of invitation for the event.
  16. Prepare the activity agenda
  17. Conduct the advocacy and organization
  18. Merit and Award System
  19. Brainstorm with the teachers this award and merit system for pupils and the reading teachers and formulate implementing guidelines.
  20. Expose the FRs on differentiated and interactive activities in beginning reading.
  21. Day to day engagements on effective Teaching – Learning (ETL)
  22. The Reading Clinic must be learner-centered with appropriate lesson structures, technology and interactive reading resources and materials.
  23. Purchase of workbooks, charts, reading drill cards,reading exercises, MTBRK
  24. Purchase of supplies to be used for the teacher- made IMs
  25. Immerse the children into varied reading exercises in different structures (plenary, small groups, triads, dyads, individual) for word recognition and comprehension.
  26. Design a progress assessment checklist to track pupils’ reading progress to be done by the self, by peers and by the teacher.
  27. . The teachers revise her activities based on the reading progress
  28. Design and utilize reading evaluation tools to measure children’s reading improvement
  29. Accomplish Reading Progress Chart to classify the readers and identify those who will be mainstreamed.
  30. Recognize the successful readers with star awards system.
  31. Design customized approaches/activities and use them to appropriate students learning styles, talents, interests and needs.
  32. Conduct reading diagnosis both oral and written and review pupils anecdotal records and other information for triangulation.
  33. Establish database of pupils reading levels
  34. Scheduling/ Class Programming
  35. Advocacy, Orientation and launching of the AFR Program with the parents
  36. Reading intervention implementation
  37. Progress M and E
  38. Mainstreaming

Once the pupil becomes an instructional and independent reader, he is already mainstreamed anytime of the year.

Strategies Teaching Learning to Read Through the Marungko Technique

The Marungko Technique was first introduced in a public elementary school in Marungko, Angat, Bulacan. It was devised by Nooraihan and Urbano and demonstrated in their book.

According to Nooraihan and Urbano, the method used is called “phono syllabic”. It emphasizes the teaching of correct single sounds and the handling of these sounds into syllables or words; rather than the teaching of alphabet (abakada). The names of the letters of the alphabet are not taught until all the sounds have been mastered in association with their form.

How to Use the Marungko Lessons:

The first 5 lessons are as follows:

Lesson 1 – m

Lesson 2 – a

Lesson 3 – s

Lesson 4 – i

Lesson 5 – o

Teach each sound and form to mastery before a new sound is introduced:

a) Ask a question to which the response will elicit the target sound.

b) Write the target letter on the board and tell the children to sound it again as they look at the letter.

c) Show them how to write it. Ask them to write it on the board, with the fingers in the air, on their palm, on their desks, and on paper as they give the sound

d) Mastery means they know the sound and the form of the target letter. They can give the sound and write the symbol.

After the first 3 sounds have been mastered, these can be combined to form words, phrases or sentences. Every new sound is introduced with previous sounds already learned and in various combinations into words.

Introduce function words that cannot be taught through the phonosyllabic method as whole words e.g. ng, mga, ay, etc.

After the first 5 sounds have been mastered, any other sound can be taught in relation to sounds already learned. The suggested sequence is as follows:

Lesson 6 – PLesson 14 – b
Lesson 7 – kLesson 15 – g
Lesson 8 – tLesson 16 – e
Lesson 9 – lLesson 17 – w
Lesson 10 – rLesson 18 – h


Marungko approach in reading is a technique by which instead of the usual arrangement (or order) of letters, Marungko starts with m, s, a, i, so and so forth. The alphabets are rather “pronounced” than read: i.e. the alphabet “m” would be pronounced as “mmm” not the old Pinoy style of reading it as “ma”. Learning the pronunciation of just a few of the letters would actually help the child read a few more words.

Panimulang Pagbasa

Dulog Marungko

Tuklas nina Nooraihan Ali at Josefina Urbano lie Bulacan

  1. Bigyan muna ng sapat na kakayahan sa pagbasa bago turuang bumasa
  2. Mahalaga na sa bawat tunog na ituturo ay kasama ang lahat. ng mga tunog sa ibad ibangkombinasyon. 3.1niiwan sa pagpapasiya ng guro ang pagtuturo ng malaking titik.
  3. Iminumungkahing ituro ito kapag master na ang lahat ng malilit. na titik.
  4. Pagbigkas ng mga tunog sa kwento, bugtong, tula, atbp
  5. Gumamit ng mga tunay na bagay, larawan, plaskard, tsart,cut-outs, mga laro, atbp para maging kawili- wili at mapanatili ang interes ng mag-aaral.
  6. Ituro ang isang tunog isang ai’aw para lubusan at nang matutuhan.

Mungkahing Tunog na Ituturo

Bawat Markahan

Unang Markahan

m, s, a, i, o, at b

Ikalawang Markahan

e, u, t, k, 1, y, n, at g

Ikatlong Markahan

ng, p, r, d, h, at w

Ikaapat na Markahan

c, f, j, n, q, v, x, at z

Mga Antas/Hakbang ng Pagbasa

Unang Antas

  • Pagpapakilala ng mga larawan/ bagay na nagsisimula sa tunog na pinag-aaralan.
  • Pagpapakilala ng tunog
  • Pagpapakita ng hugis ng tunog
  • Pagpapakita ng titik
  • Pagsulat ng hugis ng titik sa hangin, palad, sahig at pisara
  • Pagsulat ng hugis sa papel
  • Pagsulat ng simulang tunog
  • Pagbibigay ng mga halimbawang bagay na nagsisimula sa tunog na pinag-aralan.

Ikalawang Antas

  • Pagsasama ng mga tunog upang makalikha ng isang makabuluhang salita
  • Hal. m, s, a -ama sasama mama sama aasa masama

Ikatlong Antas

  • Pagpapakilala ng mga pantulong na kataga/salita tulad ng: mga, ang, ay, si, ng, sa, kay, at nang

Ikaapat na Antas

  • Pagbubiio ng parirala at pangungusap.
  • Pagbasa sa mga nabuong salita, parirala, at pangungusap
  • Pagkilala ng mga detalye sa patnubay ng guro.

The Four-Pronged Approach in Reading Instruction

By Raidis Laudiano, M.A.

The four-pronged approach was first developed by Professor Basilisa Manhit of the College of Education, University of the Philippines, Diliman. The philosophical foundations of the four-pronged approach are the following: literature-based, holistic, and places emphasis on the process of transfer. This approach has evolved through the years with the consistent use by the teachers of the University of the Philippines Integrated School Kindergarten to Grade II (U.P.l.S. K-2) and with the input of the other members of the faculty of the Reading Education Area of the same university.

The four-pronged approach is composed of four parts:


The first prong aims to immerse the child in literature and develop a deep and lasting love for reading. Finding a good and interesting story or poem is the first step in this prong. The story/poem should be suitable to the age, interests, and vocabulary levels of tire children. The message of the story should be very clear to the teacher. His/Her understanding of the material will be the basis of an appropriate objective which will guide the development of the lesson.

The words, phrases, places, and important details of the story which may hinder the children’s understanding of the selection should be identified. Methods of clearing these obstructions should be planned. Unlocking of difficulties may be made through a variety of ways such as demonstrations, concrete objects, drawings, and other forms of representation, verbal/contextual clues and games.

To develop a love for reading, the child must also have a need and desire to read or listen.

The teacher must look for an incident in the stoiy/poem which is familiar to the child. From this, a question for motivation may be asked so the children may freely share personal experiences and feelings about it. Linking these expressed thoughts and feelings to tire story through a similarly phrased question will motivate them to listen to or read the story. They’ will want to find out if the question is resolved differently or not. Thus, the children have a motive for listening to the story.

Only after this enthusiasm is kindled, should tire story be read to tire children. The manner of story or poetry’ reading should sustain I llis interest. The reading of the stoiy/poem should equal the artistry of the author.


After story/poetry reading, the children are asked to answer the motive question. A discussion then unfolds the events and beauty’ of the selection. This discussion should succeed in imparting the message of the story. The children arrive at this on their own pace of realization guided by the questions of the teacher. The children are trained to reflect on the stoiy. They soon become accustomed to critical thinking, the second prong. Creative exercises may follow to elevate tile reading/listening activity’ to a more aesthetic level when they can interpret the story/poem purely on their own.

Through this method of sharing literature, vocabulary is developed, attention span is lengthened, listening comprehension is honed and critical thinking, applied daily, becomes a habit.


Through this method of sharing literature, vocabulary is developed, attention span is lengthened, listening comprehension is honed and critical thinking, applied daily, becomes a habit.

Literature is an excellent source of examples of good language. The children will catch t his language and use it in their conversations in and out of school. The story/poem gives the children a common experience which they’ can talk about. Capitalizing on this shared knowledge and individual security to teach specific language structures will eliminate the burden of listening and speaking about unrelated topics. Using the content of the story, the children will be able to practice newly learned language structures. In this manner, the children will gain mastery of the structures of the (Filipino/English)language (now also named GOLD or Grammar and Oral Language Development), without really knowing that they have just had a grammar lesson.


In the course of time, children who have become used to listening to stories will want to read on their own. Opening a book and pretending to read are just some of the symptoms that tell that a child is ready for beginning reading instruction, or the transfer stage. This prong is also planned and implemented as systematically as the three prongs.

This is the prong where reading readiness activities are given to the pupils. The Fuller Approach is used as a guide for the sequence of teaching the phonemes. In Filipino, the Marungko Approach provides the structure.

The table below presents a matrix of the four prongs, the goals for each one, and the materials to be used in each of the prongs:


Genuine Love for Reading (GLR) To develop a lifetime love, habit, and enjoyment for reading, storybooks, poems, trade books, songs Critical Thinking (CT) To develop the habit of reflecting on what is read and exercising decision making, making judgments, and valuing, same story and post-reading activities that engage children

Mastery of the Structures of the Filipino/English Language (MSF/EL) or Grammar and Oral Language Development (GOLD)

To develop competence in oral language, understanding, and correct use of syntax, still based on the story, objects, pictures, charts to facilitate application of structures learned

Transfer Stage (TS) To develop phonemic awareness, decoding, and encoding skills, worksheets, writing tablets, charts, and other materials of appropriate level

The four prongs flow into each other smoothly and without fanfare introductions.

All but one prong emanates from the story. Genuine love for reading, critical thinking, and mastery of the (Filipino/English) language are all based on the poem/story read. When the transfer stage commences, the children switch to the lesson they left off the day before and move on from there as guided by the teacher.


Ocampo, Dina Joana 8s Hermosa, Nemah (1997). EDR 210 Module: Trends in Reading

Instruction. U.P. Open University, Diliman, Quezon City: Office of Academic Support and Instructional Services

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