Assessment Strategies for Synchronous Virtual Instruction

In recent years, there has been a growing demand for online and virtual instruction. With the advent of technology and the COVID-19 pandemic, many schools and educational institutions have shifted towards synchronous virtual instruction, where students attend classes in real time via online platforms. While this has provided a solution to the challenges of distance learning, it has also posed new challenges in terms of assessing student learning and progress. In this article, we will explore some of the assessment strategies that can be used in synchronous virtual instruction to promote effective learning.


Assessment is an integral part of the teaching and learning process. It helps teachers to gauge the effectiveness of their instruction and students track their progress and identify areas that require improvement. However, in synchronous virtual instruction, traditional methods of assessment may not be feasible or appropriate. For instance, written exams and quizzes may be difficult to administer and monitor, and may not accurately reflect students’ understanding of the material. In addition, students may be more prone to cheating or collaborating during online assessments.

Formative Assessment

Formative assessment is a process of gathering feedback on student learning during instruction. It helps teachers to identify students’ strengths and weaknesses and adjust their teaching accordingly. In synchronous virtual instruction, formative assessment can be carried out using a variety of tools and techniques.

Polls and Quizzes

Polls and quizzes are effective tools for gathering feedback from students during a live online class. Teachers can use platforms like Kahoot, Mentimeter, or Poll Everywhere to create interactive quizzes and polls that can be displayed on the screen. Students can respond to the questions using their mobile devices, and the results can be displayed in real-time. This allows teachers to assess students’ understanding of the material and adjust their teaching accordingly.

Chat and Discussion

Chat and discussion forums are other effective tools for formative assessment in synchronous virtual instruction. Teachers can use chat rooms or discussion forums to initiate discussions on specific topics or concepts. Students can then provide their opinions, ask questions, or clarify their understanding. This allows teachers to monitor students’ participation and assess their understanding of the material.

Summative Assessment

Summative assessment is a process of evaluating student learning at the end of a unit or course. In synchronous virtual instruction, summative assessment can be carried out using a variety of tools and techniques.

Online Tests and Exams

Online tests and exams are a common tool for summative assessment in synchronous virtual instruction. Teachers can use platforms like Google Forms, Moodle, or Canvas to create quizzes and exams that can be administered online. However, to prevent cheating, teachers may need to use proctoring software that monitors students’ screens and webcams during the test.

Projects and Presentations

Projects and presentations are other effective tools for summative assessment in synchronous virtual instruction. Teachers can assign individual or group projects that require students to demonstrate their understanding of the material. Students can then present their projects to the class using video conferencing software like Zoom or Microsoft Teams. This allows teachers to assess students’ ability to apply the concepts they have learned and present them in a clear and concise manner.

Challenges and Considerations for Assessment in Synchronous Virtual Instruction

While there are many benefits to synchronous virtual instruction, there are also several challenges that educators must consider when designing assessments. One major challenge is ensuring the validity and reliability of assessments. It can be difficult to create assessments that accurately reflect student learning and measure their progress, especially when students are learning from different locations and using different devices.

Another challenge is preventing cheating and ensuring academic integrity. In virtual settings, students have access to a wide range of resources that they may use to cheat, such as search engines and online textbooks. To address this challenge, educators can use proctoring software, create assessments that require critical thinking and problem-solving, and monitor student activity during assessments.

Finally, it is essential to consider the accessibility and equity of assessments. In virtual settings, students may face a range of barriers that prevent them from participating fully, such as inadequate technology or unreliable internet connections. To ensure that assessments are accessible and equitable, educators can provide alternative assessment methods, such as oral exams or written assignments, and offer support to students who are facing technological or other barriers.

Best Practices for Assessment in Synchronous Virtual Instruction

To promote effective assessment in synchronous virtual instruction, educators can follow several best practices. These include:

  • Aligning assessments with learning outcomes: Assessments should be designed to measure students’ progress toward the learning outcomes of the course or unit. This helps to ensure that assessments are valid and reliable.
  • Providing clear instructions and guidelines: To reduce confusion and ensure fairness, educators should provide clear instructions and guidelines for assessments. This can include information on the format, duration, and expectations for the assessment.
  • Using a variety of assessment methods: To ensure that assessments accurately reflect student learning, educators should use a variety of assessment methods, such as quizzes, discussions, projects, and exams.
  • Providing feedback to students: Feedback is an essential component of the assessment process. Educators should provide timely and constructive feedback to students that help them to understand their strengths and weaknesses and identify areas for improvement.
  • Monitoring student progress: Educators should regularly monitor student progress and adjust their instruction and assessment methods as needed. This helps to ensure that students are achieving the learning outcomes and making progress toward their goals.

Future Directions for Assessment in Synchronous Virtual Instruction

As synchronous virtual instruction continues to become more prevalent, there is a growing need for research on effective assessment strategies in virtual settings. Some potential areas for future research include:

  • The impact of different assessment methods on student learning and engagement in virtual settings
  • The effectiveness of proctoring software and other tools for preventing cheating in virtual assessments
  • The accessibility and equity of virtual assessments for students from diverse backgrounds and with different needs
  • The role of feedback and self-assessment in promoting effective learning in virtual settings

By exploring these and other research questions, educators and researchers can gain a deeper understanding of how to design effective assessments in synchronous virtual instruction and promote effective learning outcomes for all students.


Assessment is a critical component of effective teaching and learning, and it becomes even more important in synchronous virtual instruction. By using a variety of assessment methods, providing clear instructions and guidelines, offering feedback to students, and monitoring their progress, educators can promote effective learning and ensure that students are making progress toward their learning outcomes. While there are challenges to designing assessments in virtual settings, by following best practices and considering the unique needs and challenges of their students, educators can create assessments that are valid, reliable, and fair. Future research can help to further improve assessment strategies in synchronous virtual instruction and promote effective learning outcomes for all students.

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